Establishment of Jiribam Town:
Jiribam was notified as a small town in 1973 under the Assam Municipal Act, 1923. Township Committee was also constituted to address the local area interest of the people. It came under the Manipur Municipalities Act, 1976 and further under the Manipur Municipalities Act, 1994. It was upgraded to a Municipality in 1984. Jiribam Municipal Council (JMC) has 10 wards.
The soil formation of Jiribam consists of sandstone and shale of tertiary age thrown into long folds. The rocks are the continuation of those rocks forming Lusai hills and Cachar hills and probably laid down in delta or estuary of a large river discharged from Himalayan ranges during the tertiary period. The formation is predominantly argillaceous and comprises mostly of shale, mudstone and suma group of grayish, fine to very fine grained massive sandstone is also found in Jiribam region whence, the rock type of Jiribam town and its region is chiefly shale, siltstone and hardstone.
Certain types of soils are found in Jiribam town and its environs that are mainly well drained except in few flat lands. It varies from sandy to loam and clayey to loam having variety of colours from yellowish to bluish grey. The plain has a formation of fertile alluvial deposition by the Jiri river.
The moisture holding capacity of these soils is low due to porosity in nature and also irresponsible deforestation, despite fair percentage of clay soil, thereby causing extreme dryness in dry season. Red soil is chiefly found on the slopes of hills/ formation whereas the nearby town (Non- built up areas) contains brown soil in general.
The soil in Jiribam region is capable of imparting substantial oxygen to plants for their growth. They also have a capability to retain soil moisture and maintain its supply throughout the growing season of certain crops.
According to the prevailing weather condition, there are three seasons namely, Dry season, rainy season and Cold weather season. Jiribam town enjoys moderate climate following its tropical location. It is influenced by S-W monsoon. The climate is humid tropical characterized by short winter and long summer with heavy rainfall. It is neither too hot nor too cold throughout the year.
Jiribam town lies under the direct influence of S-W monsoon and rainfall is abundant compared to other places of the state. Most of the rainfall (90%) is in the form of precipitation. About 20-30% of annual rainfall occurs during the pre-monsoon season in the month of May whereas about 60-70% of rainfalls occur in rainy seasons, second half of June to September, ranging from 1000mm to 1600mm. It continues till November in small quantity while that of pre-monsoon is in the form of thunder and showers. A meager quantity of frost is also found in between second half of December.
Jiribam is humid with moderately hot temperature. Dry season falls in the month of May and June which is the hottest season. The hottest temperature is recorded in May, which is about 40’C. Temperature falls down from this period and is very pleasant in autumn season, which falls around September to November. The coldest/ lowest temperature is recorded in the period between second half of December to first half of January (i.e., below 2.78’C) at late night. However, days are comfortably warm even in this period, which is the same even in the rainy season.
Jiribam is highly humid throughout the year. The highest relative humidity occurs during monsoon season, more than 96%. It is maxium of 100% & minimum of 79% in June. While that of the lowest falls in the month between October to December. The relative humidity, as a whole in Jiribam town and its region is usually higher than the rest of the state.
The topography of the region is such that the capability of wind occurrence is high in these features and winds are usually moderate and high in Jiribam areas with incidence of severe winds (cyclone). The period between March and July sees South-West monsoon periodic strong winds activity from south or southwest, accompanied by some other forces. In the post monsoon season and in the early winter, these winds blow gradually to a northerly direction.
Jiribam is one of the cloudiest regions in the state with thick and heavily clouded skies during May to September, particularly at some higher reaches. It is less severe after monsoon season and disappears only in the cold season except being effected by some western disturbances.
The people of Jiribam are living in a very risky life from geological point of view owing to its type of rocks formation and its physiography. The instability and non-compaction of the soil strata is liable to cause a terrible catastrophe due to certain factors like tectonic activities, action of heavy rainfall and underground flow, etc. As the region is confined to the earthquake prone zone – V, the shear zones and seismic activities of varying magnitude pass through the state.
REGIONAL SETTING & LOCATION
Location and Linkage
Jiribam Sub-division is located to the western part of the state, bordering in the east by the Tameglong District and on the south by the Churachandpur District. The Cachar district of Assam makes the Northern and western boundary of Jiribam Sub-divison. Jiri river is the demarcation line dividing Jiribam Sub-division with the state of Assam. On such location Jiribam town lies just on the northern tip of the Sub-division, encircled by the Jiri river almost all sides except east. The cardinal location of Jiribam is 93’29’ E Longitute and 25’15’ N Latitute.
Jiribam is the western gate of the state and it is the largest and the most important Urban center in the Western part of Manipur acting as a commercial and administrative center. The town is situated at a distance of 223 km from Imphal city, the state capital. It enjoys heavy rainfall and the climate is moderately hot and humidious compared to other parts of the State. It is linked by NH-53, while passing through the breath of the state, connecting Silchar town of Cachar district in Assam and with rest of the country. Jiribam is the only rail-head in the state.
Jribam is the commercial and sub-divisional headquarter. It is linked with all the important towns and city and many villages within and outside the state, acting as subsidiary commercial center in the state. A vast hinterland resources area for the economic development of the town, the district as well as the state should be materialized in modern India since its influence extends throughout the state.
The topography of Jiribam town is plain interrupted by a ridge in the middle. Topography of Jiribam is the extension of Cachar valley. The plain has a formation of alluvial deposition by the Jiri river. And it is a fitting nomenclature that this sub-division is named after this resourceful Jiri river. The ridge runs north to south from the centre of the town and intermingles with the highland of Aglapur. On both the sides of the ridge there are alluvial plain. Most of the settlements are found on this highland. The plain area is fertile due to alluvial soil and is generally used for cultivation. The general slope of the town is from north to south.
Much variety of natural vegetation is found to keep the greenery of Jiribam & its environs constant. This region is favourable for the development of the town & its hinther land and for its future widespread.
Drainage system of Jiribam region is greatly influenced by Jiri River, which flows North to South. And a number of nullahs & streamlets that joined each other forming small streams, which in turn joined Jiri rivers in various points.
Historical growth of the town
Jiribam town is the Sub-divisional headquarter of Jiribam Sub-divisionin the Imphal East district of the state. Although Jiribam is located at a distance of 223 Km. from Imphal but due to its topographical characteristics it is attached to Imphal East district for administrative reasons. Jiribam has distinct characteristics surrounded by Jiri river at Jiri Ghat. Silchar is only 45 Km. from Jiribam. The National Highway No. 53 links Jiribam with Imphal. Infact Jiribam is the face of Manipur for a visitor coming from Assam. A metre gauge railway line connecting Jiribam with Silchar is the only rail head of Manipur.
Jribam has a long history of its own, Settlement at the present town started some time at the beginning of the Century around 1904 A.D. The local administration was look after by a Darwan for the Darbar of the king of Manipur. Jiribam became a Mauja in 1940 and the office of the Maujadar was locate at Kalinagar. By this time Jiribam was becoming an importat centre of trade & commerce. The present Jiri bazaar was established around 1940. Jiribam became a full fledged administrative office of Sub-Deputy collector in 1950. In 1959 it was upgraded to Sub-Divisional Head quarter.
Jiribam was declared as Notified Area in 1973 and subsequently Small Town Committee was formed. It was upgraded to a Municipality on 27th September, 1984. Jiribam was a trade centre from its inception due to its strategic location. Jiri bazaar was well known during British period also. With the assignment of the administrative work of the Sub-division, there was a repid immigration of Government and Semi Government official of the town, its fuctional characteristics too took a new shape. With more then 80% of the working population engage in non-agricultural pursuits, Jiribam has duel characteristics, administrative as well as trade centre.